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Computer Acronyms With Their Meanings

3Dnow!:  Multi-Media Extensions (AMD)

AC:  Alternating Current

ACPI:  Advanced Configuration and Power Interface

ALU:   Arithmetic-Logic Unit

AM:  Amplitude Modulated

AMD:  Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.

AMI:  American Megatrends Inc.

ANSI:  American National Standards Institute

APIC:  Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller

APM:  Advanced Power Management

ASCII:  American Standard Code for Information Interchange

ASIC:  Application Specific Integrated Circuit

ASPI:  Advanced SCSI Programming Interface

AT:  Advanced Technology

ATA:  AT Bus Attachment

ATAPI:  ATA Packet Interface

ATM:  Asynchronous Transfer Mode

BBS:  Bulletin Board System

BCC:  Block Check Character

BCD:  Binary Coded Decimal

BIOS:  Basic Input / Output System

BNC:  Bayonet Nut Connector

BPS/bps:  Bytes/bits Per Second

BSC:  Binary Synchronous Communications

BSD:  Berkeley Standard Distribution

BTU:  British Thermal Units

CAD:  Computer Aided Design

CAM:  Computer Aided Manufacturing

CAS:  Column Address Strobe

CD:  Carrier Detect

CDROM:  Compact Disk Read Only Memory

CGA:  Color Graphics Adapter

CHS:  Cylinder Head Sector

CMOS:  Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor

CPI:  Clocks Per Instruction

CPU:  Central Processing Unit

CR:  Carriage Return

CRC:  Cyclical Redundancy Check

CRT:  Cathode Ray Tube

CSR:  Command Status Register

CTS:  Clear To Send

DAT:  Digital Audio Tape

DC:  Direct Current

DCD:  Data Carrier Detect

DCE:  Data Circuit-terminating Equipment

DD:  Double Density

DEC:  Digital Equipment Corporation

DIP:  Dual-In-line Package

DMA:  Direct Memory Access

DMI:  Desktop Management Interface

DOS:  Disk Operating System

DPE:  Data Parity Error

DRAM:  Dynamic Random Access Memory

DS:  Double Sided

DSP:  Digital Signal Processor

DSR:  Data Set Ready

DTC:  Data Terminal Controller

DTE:  Data Terminating Equipment

DTR:  Data Terminal Ready

EBCDIC:  Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code

EC:  Error Check

ECC:  Error Check and Correction

ECP:  Enhanced Communication Port

ECU:  EISA Configuration Utility

EDO:  Extended Data Out RAM

EEPROM:  Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory

EGA:  Enhanced Graphics Adapter

EIA:  Electronic Industries Association

EIDE:  Enhanced Integrated Device Electronics

EISA:  Enhanced Industry Standard Architecture

EMI:  Electro-Magnetic Interference

EMF:  Electro-Magnetic Force

EMS:  Expanded Memory Specification

EOF:  End Of File

EOL:  End Of Line

EPP:  Enhanced Parallel Port

EPROM:  Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory

ESCD:  Extended System Configuration Data

ESD:  Electro-Static Discharge

ESDI:  Enhanced Small Devices Interface

FAT:  File Allocation Table

FCC:  Federal Communications Commission

FDD:  Fixed/Floppy Disk Drive

FDDI:  Fiber Distributed Data Interface

FDM:  Frequency Division Multiplexing

FDX:  Full-Duplex Transmission

FE:  Front End

FEP:  Front End Processor

FF:  Form Feed

FIFO:  First-In First-Out

FILO:  First-In Last-Out

FM:  Frequency Modulation

FPGA:  Field Programmable Gate Array

FPM:  Fast Page Mode RAM

FPU:  Floating Point Unit

FRC:  Functional Redundancy Checking

FRU:  Field-Replaceable Unit

FSF:  Free Software Foundation

FSK:  Frequency Shifty Keying

FTP:  File Transfer Program

GAS:  Gallium Arsenide

GFLOPS:  Billions of FLOating Point Operations Per Second

GUI:  Graphical User Interface

HD:  High Density / Hard Disk

HDD:  Hard Disk Drive

HDX:  Half-Duplex Transmission

HFS:  Hierarchical File System

HPFS:  High Performance File System

I/O:  Input/Output

IBM:  International Business Machines Corporation

IC:  Integrated Circuit

IDE:  Integrated Device Electronics

IEEE:  Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers

IMP:  Interface Message Processor

IPC:  Inter Process Communication

IPX:  Inter network Packet eXchange

IRQ:  Interrupt ReQuest

ISA:  Industry Standard Architecture

ISDN:  Integrated Services Digital Network

ISO:  International Standards Organization

JFS:  Journalized File System

KNI:  Katmai New Instructions

kVA:  KiloVolt-Amps

LAN:  Local Area Network

LBA:  Linear Block Array / Addressing

LCD:  Liquid Crystal Display

LED:  Light Emitting Diode

LF:  Line Feed

LIM:  Lotus/Intel/Microsoft’s Expanded Memory Manager

LRU:  Least-Recently Used

LSB/lsb:  Least Significant Byte/bit

LSI:  Large Scale Integration

LUN:  Logical Unit Number

MAN:  Metropolitan Area Network

MB/Mb:  Mega Bytes/bits

MBR:  Master Boot Record

MCA:  Micro Channel Architecture

MCGA:  Multi-Color Graphics Array

MCM:  Multi-Chip Module

MDRAM:  Multi-bank RAM

MFLOPS:  Millions of FLOating Point Operations per Second

MFM:  Modified Frequency Modulated

MHz:  MegaHertz

MICR:  Magnetic Ink Character Recognition

MIDI:  Musical Instrument Data Interface

MIMD:  Multiple-Instruction Multiple-Data

MIPS:  Millions of Instructions per Second

MISD:  Multiple-Instruction Single Data

MMU:  Memory Management Unit

MMX:  Multi-Media Extensions

MNP:  Microcom Network Protocol

MODEM:  MOdulator / DEModulator

MOPS:  Millions of Operations Per Second

MOS:  Metal-Oxide Semiconductor

MP:  Multi-Processor

MPP:  Massively Parallel Processor

MPS:  Multi-Processor System

MSB/msb:  Most Significant Byte/bit

MSDOS:  Microsoft’s Disk Operating System

MSI:  Medium Scale Integration

MTBF:  Mean Time Between Failure

N/C:  No-Connect

NBS:  National Bureau of Standards

NEMA:  National Electrical Manufacturers Association

NFS:  Network File System

NFU:  Not-Frequently Used

NMI:  Non-Maskable Interrupt

NMOS:  Negatively doped Metal-Oxide Semiconductor

NOP:  No OPeration NRU Not-Recently Used

NSF:  National Science Foundation

NVRAM:  NonVolatile Random Access Memory

OCR:  Optical Character Recognition

ODI:  Open Data link Interface

OEM:  Original Equipment Manufacturer

OS:  Operating System

OSF:  Open Software Foundation

OSI:  Open Systems Interconnect

PAL/PLA:  Programmable Array Logic / Logic Array

PB:  Push Button

PBX:  Private Branch eXtender

PC:  Personal Computer, Program Counter

PCB:  Printed Circuit Board

PCI:  Peripheral Component Interconnect

PCM:  Pulse Code Modulation

PCMCIA:  Personal Computer Memory Card International Association

PE:  Processor Element

PFF:  Page Fault Frequency

PGA:  Professional Graphics Array

PGA:  Pin Grid Array

PIC:  Programmable Interrupt Controller

PIO:  Programmed Input / Output

PIROM:  Processor Information ROM

PLCC:  Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier

PLL:  Phase Locked Loop

PM:  Preventive Maintenance

PMOS:  Positively doped Metal-Oxide Semiconductor

PnP:  Plug-and-Play

POST:  Power On Self Test

PPP:  Point-to-Point Protocol

PQFP:  Plastic Quad Flat Pack

PROM:  Programmable Read Only Memory

PSTN:  Public Switched Telephone Network

PTE:  Page Table Entry

QAM:  Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

QFP:  Quad Flat Pack

QIC:  Quarter Inch Cartridge

RAID:  Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks

RAM:  Random Access Memory

RAMDAC:  Random Access Memory Digital to Analogue Converter

RAS:  Row Address Strobe

RCA:  Radio Corporation of America

RCC:  Routing Control Center


RFC:  Request For Comments

RFI:  Radio Frequency Interference

RI:  Ring Indicator

RISC:  Reduced Instruction-Set Computer

RLL:  Run Length Limited

RMS:  Root Mean Squared

RMW:  Read Modify Write

ROM:  Read Only Memory

RPC:  Remote Procedure Call

RPM:  Rotations Per Minute

RTC:  Real Time Clock

RTS:  Request To Send

SAM:  Sequential Access Memory

SASI:  Shugart Associates Standard Interface

SCSI:  Small Computer Systems Interface

SD:  Single Density

SDLC:  Synchronous Data Link Control

SDRAM:  Synchronous Dynamic RAM

SDRAM DDR:  Double Data Rate SDRAM

SDRAM BDDR:  Bi-Directional Strobed DDR SDRAM

SE:  Systems Engineer

SEC:  Single Edge Contact

SFF:  Small Form Factor

SGRAM:  Synchronous Graphics RAM

SIMD:  Single-Instruction Multiple-Data

SIMM:  Single Inline Memory Module

SIPP:  Single Inline Pinned Package

SISD:  Single-Instruction Single-Dat

SLIP:  Serial Line Internet Protocol

SMD:  Surface Mount Device

SMT:  Surface Mount Technology

SNA:  System Network Architecture

SNR:  Signal to Noise Ratio

SO/SOL:  Small Out Line

SOIC:  Small Outline Integrated Circuit

SPOOL:  Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On Line

SPT:  Sectors Per Track

SPU:  Single Processor Unit

SRAM:  Static Random Access Memory

SS:  Single Sided

STDM:  Synchronous Time Division Multiplexing

STN:  Super Twisted Nematic

STU:  Streaming Tape Unit

SVGA:  Super Video Graphics Array

TCM:  Trellis Code Modulation

TCP/IP:  Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol

TDM:  Time Division Multiplexing

TI:  Texas Instruments

TIA:  Telecomm Industry Association

TLB:  Translation-Look aside Buffer

TPI:  Tracks Per Inch


TSR:  Terminate and Stay Resident

TTL:  Transistor-Transistor Logic

UAE:  Unrecoverable Application Error

UART:  Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter

UDP:  User Datagram Protocol

UMB:  Upper Memory Block

UNIX:  A trademark used for a computer disk operating system

UPS:  Un-interruptible Power Supply

USL:  UNIX System Labs

UUCP:  UNIX to UNIX Copy Program

VBE:  Video BIOS Extensions

VCR:  Video Cassette Recorder

VESA:  Video Enhanced Standards Association

VGA:  Video Graphics Array

VLB:  VESA Local Bus

VLIW:  Very Long Instruction Word

VLSI:  Very Large Scale Integration

VM:  Virtual Memory

VME:  Versa Module Euro-card

VRAM:  Video Random Access Memory

VRT:  Voltage Reduction Technology

VTR:  Video Tape Recorder

WAN:  Wide Area Network

WATS:  Wide Area Telephone Service

WD:  Western Digital

WORM:  Write Once – Read-Many

WRAM:  Window Random Access Memory

WS:  Wait State

XGA:  eXtended Graphics Array

XMS:  Extended Memory Specification

XOR:  Exclusive-OR

XT:  eXtended Technology

ZIF:  Zero Insertion Force


Filed under: Tips Tricks, Windows XP

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